MeDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) is an internationally used medical dictionary developed by the ICH in the 1990s which will be widely utilized during pharmaceutical regulatory processes. One of its scopes of use is the data coding of adverse events and adverse reactions. MedRA has been translated into English, Japanese, Czech, Dutch, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.
The great advantage of MedDRA is that it organises adverse events reported by clinical investigators into a standard format, making it possible to discover groups and relationships between cases that seem unique at first. This can be used for statistical reporting purposes during the creation of tables and listings. MedRA is structured into various hierarchical groups, arranged from very specific to very general. Based on its hierarcy, a specific event is listed under various connecting groups. The hierarchical groups are as follows:
Among the groups, SOC (System Organ Classes) includes the most general terms, while LLT (Lowest Level Terms) describe fully specific events. Beyond the scope of a given analysis, MedRA has contributed to the standardization of medical databases and hence to a better assessment of diseases.
Medication errors are the most common preventable cause of undesired adverse events in medication practice and present a major public health burden.
EU legislation requires information on medication errors to be collected and reported through national pharmacovigilance systems for evaluation and assessment.
Use of common definitions and collaboration with patient safety organisations underpin error prevention through the product life-cycle.
Read the full article here: Politopedia
Each year more than 4 million people die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Europe. This is 45% of the yearly deaths in Europe. Differences between the sexes: the number of deaths from CVD is higher in women (2.2 million) than men (1.8 million), but:
- more men (0.9 million) than woman (0.5 million) die from CVD under the age of 75
- more than twice as many men than women die from CVD under the age of 65
Regional differences: in the EU-15 countries, 33% of all deaths is caused by CVD, while in the EU-28 countries this number is 38% and in non-EU member countries it is 54%.
Although the number of deaths from CVD has been reduced in most countries since 2003, the hospitalization rate has been increased due to increased number of people suffering from cardiovascular diseases.
Read more here: Oxford Academic
Diagnosis and Classification of 17 Diseases from 1404 Subjects via Pattern Analysis of Exhaled Molecules
Authors: Morad K. NakhlehHaitham AmalRaneen JeriesYoav Y. BrozaManal AboudAlaa GharraHodaya IvgiSalam KhatibShifaa BadarnehLior Har-ShaiLea Glass-MarmorIzabella LejbkowiczAriel MillerSamih BadarnyRaz WinerJohn FinbergSylvia Cohen-KaminskyFrédéric PerrosDavid MontaniBarbara GirerdGilles GarciaGérald SimonneauFarid NakhoulShira BaramRaed SalimMarwan HakimMaayan GruberOhad RonenTal MarshakIlana DoweckOfer NativZaher BahouthDa-you ShiWei ZhangQing-ling HuaYue-yin PanLi TaoHu LiuAmir KarbanEduard KoifmanTova RainisRoberts SkaparsArmands SivinsGuntis AncansInta Liepniece-KareleIlze KikusteIeva LasinaIvars TolmanisDouglas JohnsonStuart Z. MillstoneJennifer FultonJohn W. WellsLarry H. WilfMarc HumbertMarcis LejaNir PeledHossam Haick
This paper presents a new method to identify 17 different diseases (cancerous, inflammatory and neurological ones) with high accuracy from human’s exhaled breath. An artificially intelligent nanoarray has been built consisting of organic and inorganic sensors to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from breath and transform them to electrical parameters. Each disease has its unique volatile molecular print based on different amounts of 13 components in the breath. An overall probability of 86% was achieved for the accuracy during the clinical trials.
Experiments were carried out in 5 countries at 9 clinical facilities on a total of 1404 patients. 813 patients were suffering from either of the 17 mentioned diseases, the others were healthy. Two breath samples were taken from each patient, one was captured and processed by the nanoarray, the other was analysed by mass spectrometry for validation purposes. The results were blinded, so researchers did not know which condition the participants had. It was possible to obtain that the results became independent from several factors, like gender, age, smoking habits and geographic location. It is also very important to mention that one disease did not prevent the detection of the others.
This new method can be a base of developing inexpensive portable diagnostic devices to identify several human diseases in advance, even at home.
Read the original article here: ACS Publications
„Medical robots do not only exist in sci-fi movies and the distant future, they are coming to healthcare and all stakeholders must prepare for them. Robots can support, assist and extend the service health workers are offering. In jobs with repetitive and monotonous functions they might even obtain the capacity to completely replace humans.”
- The Xenex robot works by pulsing xenon, an inert gas, at high intensity in xenon ultraviolet flashlamp. The robot’s light destroys viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores in just 4-10 minutes per room (for example: patients rooms, operating rooms, public areas). By using this robot infections and viruses caused death is reduced significantly.
- The Pepper robots is taking up reception duties at two Belgian hospitals. Pepper (standing 140 centimeters and equipped with wheels under his white frame) can recognise the human voice in 20 languages and detect if he is talking to a man, women or child. The robot has a screen (10.1-inch touch display) on his chest and a round head.
- Spread of robotic surgery due to several technological improvements, such as a three-dimensional (3D) view of the operating field, a seven-degrees-of-freedom motion with wristed instruments, the absence of fulcrum effect and surgeon tremor and greater ergonomics.
- Expansion of InTouch Health or Telemedicine which enables physicians to cross physical barriers, instantly eliminate distance, and facilitate vital communication between medical staff and patients. Through secure, high-speed Internet, and the use of state-of-the-art technologies, a medical specialist can be located virtually anywhere on the planet, and can diagnose a patient in an emergency or critical care situation.
- TUG robot who is able to carry around medical tools up to 453 kilograms. The TUG uses smart autonomous navigation. The robot is sent or requested using a touch screen interface.
- Robear, a Robot for Interactive Body Assistance is built in japan to lift patients and gently transfer them between beds and wheelchairs. Robear has mechanical arms that are able to carry up to 80kg of weight and also has roller legs that can extend and retract from a base as necessary when bending to lift a patient or when manoeuvring through tight spaces like doorways.
- The microbots, which are less than one millimeter in size which travel throughout the human bloodstream to deliver drugs to specific targets or seek out and destroy tumors, blood clots, and infections that can’t be easily accessed in other ways.
- Veebot’s robot technician draws blood from patient quickly and higher accuracy. The robotic medical technician then uses ultrasound and infrared light to search for veins before aligning and inserting a needle.
- PARO robot is an advanced interactive therapeutic robot designed to stimulate patients with Dementia, Alzheimer’s, and other cognition disorders. The PARO therapeutic robot looks, feels and sounds like a baby seal and responds to petting by moving its tail and opening and closing its eyes. Paro also responds to sounds and can learn names, including its own. It can simulate emotions such as surprise, happiness and anger. Just like animals used in pet therapy, Paro can help relieve depression and anxiety—but it never needs to be fed and doesn’t die.
Check the original article here: The Medical Futurist