Authors: Jessica Hartmann, Martina Schüßler‐Lenz, Attilio Bondanza, Christian J Buchholz
DOI 10.15252/emmm.201607485 | Published online 01.08.2017
EMBO Molecular Medicine (2017) e201607485
In recent years, an increasing emphasis has been put on cancer treatment in the field of change in the patient’s immune response. One of the promising therapies is called CAR T-cells therapy. The essence of this process is in three steps:
1, T-cells are gathered from the patient’s or donor’s blood
2, T-cells are genetically engineered by an artificially constructed recognition receptor (Chimeric Antigen Receptor, CAR)
3, the genetically modified T-cells (that are able to detect and kill the cancer cells due to their new receptors) are returned to the patient (usually infused intravenously)
Although the first clinical study with CAR T-cells was carried out about 20 years ago, the number of trials has been increasing every year for the past 10 years. Majority of trials was made in the USA and in China. In Europe, such studies are mainly conducted in the UK, Germany and France. There are many reasons why making far fewer CAR T therapeutic clinical trials in Europe compared to the USA. Just a few of them: lack of places where high quality and consistent CAR T-cells can be produced in Europe, different EU states use different application forms and different approval timelines, the rules on clinical trials are not fully synchronized in Europe.
CAR T-cell therapy is particularly effective for malignant B-cell diseases. The best result is achieved when patients are suffered from acute lymphoid leukemia. However, only modest successes were reported when non-Hogdkin lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia were treated with this therapy.
Of course, CAR T-cell therapy may have many serious side effects, for example: neurotoxicity, CRS (Cytokine-Release Syndrome), TLS (Tumor Lysis Syndrome), acute anaphylaxia, B-cell aplasia.
Continue reading: HERE
Each year more than 4 million people die from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Europe. This is 45% of the yearly deaths in Europe. Differences between the sexes: the number of deaths from CVD is higher in women (2.2 million) than men (1.8 million), but:
- more men (0.9 million) than woman (0.5 million) die from CVD under the age of 75
- more than twice as many men than women die from CVD under the age of 65
Regional differences: in the EU-15 countries, 33% of all deaths is caused by CVD, while in the EU-28 countries this number is 38% and in non-EU member countries it is 54%.
Although the number of deaths from CVD has been reduced in most countries since 2003, the hospitalization rate has been increased due to increased number of people suffering from cardiovascular diseases.
Read more here: Oxford Academic
Diagnosis and Classification of 17 Diseases from 1404 Subjects via Pattern Analysis of Exhaled Molecules
Authors: Morad K. NakhlehHaitham AmalRaneen JeriesYoav Y. BrozaManal AboudAlaa GharraHodaya IvgiSalam KhatibShifaa BadarnehLior Har-ShaiLea Glass-MarmorIzabella LejbkowiczAriel MillerSamih BadarnyRaz WinerJohn FinbergSylvia Cohen-KaminskyFrédéric PerrosDavid MontaniBarbara GirerdGilles GarciaGérald SimonneauFarid NakhoulShira BaramRaed SalimMarwan HakimMaayan GruberOhad RonenTal MarshakIlana DoweckOfer NativZaher BahouthDa-you ShiWei ZhangQing-ling HuaYue-yin PanLi TaoHu LiuAmir KarbanEduard KoifmanTova RainisRoberts SkaparsArmands SivinsGuntis AncansInta Liepniece-KareleIlze KikusteIeva LasinaIvars TolmanisDouglas JohnsonStuart Z. MillstoneJennifer FultonJohn W. WellsLarry H. WilfMarc HumbertMarcis LejaNir PeledHossam Haick
This paper presents a new method to identify 17 different diseases (cancerous, inflammatory and neurological ones) with high accuracy from human’s exhaled breath. An artificially intelligent nanoarray has been built consisting of organic and inorganic sensors to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from breath and transform them to electrical parameters. Each disease has its unique volatile molecular print based on different amounts of 13 components in the breath. An overall probability of 86% was achieved for the accuracy during the clinical trials.
Experiments were carried out in 5 countries at 9 clinical facilities on a total of 1404 patients. 813 patients were suffering from either of the 17 mentioned diseases, the others were healthy. Two breath samples were taken from each patient, one was captured and processed by the nanoarray, the other was analysed by mass spectrometry for validation purposes. The results were blinded, so researchers did not know which condition the participants had. It was possible to obtain that the results became independent from several factors, like gender, age, smoking habits and geographic location. It is also very important to mention that one disease did not prevent the detection of the others.
This new method can be a base of developing inexpensive portable diagnostic devices to identify several human diseases in advance, even at home.
Read the original article here: ACS Publications
„Medical robots do not only exist in sci-fi movies and the distant future, they are coming to healthcare and all stakeholders must prepare for them. Robots can support, assist and extend the service health workers are offering. In jobs with repetitive and monotonous functions they might even obtain the capacity to completely replace humans.”
- The Xenex robot works by pulsing xenon, an inert gas, at high intensity in xenon ultraviolet flashlamp. The robot’s light destroys viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores in just 4-10 minutes per room (for example: patients rooms, operating rooms, public areas). By using this robot infections and viruses caused death is reduced significantly.
- The Pepper robots is taking up reception duties at two Belgian hospitals. Pepper (standing 140 centimeters and equipped with wheels under his white frame) can recognise the human voice in 20 languages and detect if he is talking to a man, women or child. The robot has a screen (10.1-inch touch display) on his chest and a round head.
- Spread of robotic surgery due to several technological improvements, such as a three-dimensional (3D) view of the operating field, a seven-degrees-of-freedom motion with wristed instruments, the absence of fulcrum effect and surgeon tremor and greater ergonomics.
- Expansion of InTouch Health or Telemedicine which enables physicians to cross physical barriers, instantly eliminate distance, and facilitate vital communication between medical staff and patients. Through secure, high-speed Internet, and the use of state-of-the-art technologies, a medical specialist can be located virtually anywhere on the planet, and can diagnose a patient in an emergency or critical care situation.
- TUG robot who is able to carry around medical tools up to 453 kilograms. The TUG uses smart autonomous navigation. The robot is sent or requested using a touch screen interface.
- Robear, a Robot for Interactive Body Assistance is built in japan to lift patients and gently transfer them between beds and wheelchairs. Robear has mechanical arms that are able to carry up to 80kg of weight and also has roller legs that can extend and retract from a base as necessary when bending to lift a patient or when manoeuvring through tight spaces like doorways.
- The microbots, which are less than one millimeter in size which travel throughout the human bloodstream to deliver drugs to specific targets or seek out and destroy tumors, blood clots, and infections that can’t be easily accessed in other ways.
- Veebot’s robot technician draws blood from patient quickly and higher accuracy. The robotic medical technician then uses ultrasound and infrared light to search for veins before aligning and inserting a needle.
- PARO robot is an advanced interactive therapeutic robot designed to stimulate patients with Dementia, Alzheimer’s, and other cognition disorders. The PARO therapeutic robot looks, feels and sounds like a baby seal and responds to petting by moving its tail and opening and closing its eyes. Paro also responds to sounds and can learn names, including its own. It can simulate emotions such as surprise, happiness and anger. Just like animals used in pet therapy, Paro can help relieve depression and anxiety—but it never needs to be fed and doesn’t die.
Check the original article here: The Medical Futurist
“Proton beam therapy (PBT) is more expensive process than conventional radiotherapy (XRT), but some studies suggest PBT causes less side effects. PBT is not a new invention, the first patients were treated by PBT in 1954. PBT is becoming more widespread, althought this therapy requires large investments, high operation costs and big infrastructure. As of December 2015, 57 proton therapy centers are in operation worldwide and others are under building or planning.
Clinical benefit (improving survival rate or less toxicity) of proton therapy compared to other treatments has yet to be proved. The biggest handicap of the proton therapy is the lack of randomized trials to demonstrate the benefits of this therapy. The main argument of opponents of therapy is the high cost.
The author mentions some thoughts on treatment of various types of cancer by proton therapy (pediatric tumors, adult tumors: prostate tumor, uveal melanoma, chordoma and chondrosarcoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, brain tumors, head and neck cancers, GI malignancies, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, re-irradiation).
The author’s final conclusion: proton therapy at present is costly and accessible to a few patients only. The missions of the future: oncologist community should agree that the PBT is effective and new technical developments should be done that enable this technology to become cheaper and more accessible.” – Maurizio Amichetti
What is proton therapy?
„Proton therapy is an advanced way of treating cancer patients who need radiation therapy. Treatment involves using a beam of protons — subatomic particles carrying a positive charge — that is generated by accelerating hydrogen gas in a particle accelerator called a cyclotron. This proton beam is then directed to the cancerous site in the patient’s body. The beam can be shaped precisely to match the specific size and shape of the tumor. As the beam passes through DNA molecules in cancerous cells, the positive charge of the protons pulls negatively charged electrons in the DNA out of place. This ionization process changes the fundamental characteristics of the individual atoms that make up the DNA molecule, which in turn changes how its base pairs interact and replicate. The DNA becomes so damaged that the cell can no longer function and undergoes apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in which the cell sends out signals to break down its own structures.”
How is proton therapy different from radiation therapy?
„Traditional radiation therapy uses X-rays, which expose the patient to potentially harmful electromagnetic radiation as they enter and exit the body. Protons, on the other hand, stop at a pre-determined depth inside the patient and do not deposit any radiation dose beyond that depth.”
Read more: Here
Armando Salim Munoz-Abraham, Manuel I. Rodriguez-Davalos, Alessandra Bertacco, Brian Wengerter, John P. Geibel, David C. Mulligan
Current Transplantation Reports
March 2016, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 93-99
The 3D bioprinting process can be achieved by three different printer modalities based on the current technologies, know as micro-extrusion bioprinting, inkjet bioprinting, or laser bioprintin. The article describes briefly the 3D-bioprinting process.
The use of 3D bioprinting has already resulted in printing of blood vessels and vascular networks, bones, cartilage, ears, tracheal grafts – the three greatest success: replacement the complete skull with a 3D-printed, tailor-made plastic skull without adverse event, succesful transplantation of engineered bladder in humans without any major complications, creating a 3D-printed bionic ear.
About current developments:
- vascular structures: tissue-engineered vascular-graft without aneurismal change or graft rupture
- liver: Organovo demonstrated the feasibility of printing metabolically functional 3D hepatic structures and proving that the tissue was capable of cell-cell interaction, protein production, and enzymatic activity
- kidney: Organovo presented their in vitro model of a multicellular, three-dimensional tissue model of human kidney proximal tubule
Future horizonts and Conclusion: the ultimate aim is the complete ontogenic repliation, but it requires a better understanding of intercellular communication and tissue microenvironments futhermore creating of printing protocols.
For more information read the original article in: here